When talking about photolithography, we are referring to the process of creating integrated circuits via a process called optical erosion. Instead of directly cutting the integrated circuit, what the process does is it uses its innate features to perform more precise incisions. This is considered to be a highly technical and complex procedure that needs not only a very clean surface substrate but also consistent environmental conditions. Interestingly, the process can only be used to create really flat surfaces. Even with this seeming limitation, it is still considered to be the most popular method used to create integrated circuits.
The process of photolithography starts with the use of a substrate that has been thoroughly cleaned using either chemical or water in order to free it of all types of impurities and liquids. Afterwards, it is then covered with a light sensitive chemical and then left to be exposed on a concentrated ultraviolet light beam. The UV light allows the unprotected zones of the substrate to dissolve until only the intended pattern is left. The established pattern can then be used to move an electrical current from different portions of the substrate.
Due to its highly technical nature a lot of people may be wondering what the main purpose of the entire process is. To explain it simply, the photolithographic process is used not only to create integrated circuitry but also important parts of computers. Quite recently it has been used to produce nanites which are basically microscopic computers that can perform specific tasks. On a more conventional note, since the process allows for the production of a specific pattern on any kind of small surface it is then used as a type of simple lithographic process. The other kinds of lithography where the process is applied include: ion projection, x ray, electron beam and immersion lithography.Facts You Need To Know about Photolithography by Robert C Neill